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Statue of Xuanzang in front of DaCi'en Temple, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, China 

中國陝西省西安大慈恩寺前玄奘法師像

중국 섬서성 서안 대자은사 전면 현장법사상 


For more information on Xuanzang, see below 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xuanzang




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Maoling Mausoleum, or Tomb of Emperor Liu Che 劉徹 of Western Han Dynasty 


*** 현지 안내판 설명이다. 


무릉경구 茂陵景區

Maoling Mausoleum Scenic Spot

茂陵是漢武帝劉徹之陵墓, 西漢帝王陵中规模最大的一座. 由于陵的所在地原屬漢代槐里县之茂乡, 武帝建陵于此, 故称茂陵. 

《汉书·武帝纪》载: "建元二年(公元前139年), 初置茂陵邑". 茂陵营建, 共历时五十三年. 据史书记載, 把全国每年赋税收入的三分之一, 花费在陵墓的修建上. 因而陵体高大宏伟, 形为方锥, 形爲方錐, 有“东万金字塔”之称. 

《关中记》载: “汉诸陵皆高十二丈, 方一百二十步, 唯茂陵高十四丈, 方一百四十步。” 今实测, 46.5米, 底边东西231米, 南北234米, 宽5.8米, 與記載相符. 陵周围有方形护垣, 东西430.87米, 南北 414.87米, 垣墙基寬5.8米, 遗迹依稀可辨。 

据记载, 茂陵地下随葬品极为奢侈丰厚, “比葬, 陵中不复容物。” 工程浩大, 瘗物之多亦远超诸汉陵. 李夫人祔葬于茂陵西北侧, 墓形独特, 为二阶台状。茂陵陪葬墓有卫青、霍去病、 霍光、 金日磾等二十多座, 皆武帝朝之勋臣贵戚.

霍去病 (公元前140年-前117年), 是西汉武帝时期杰出的青年将领。他十八岁起领兵作战, 二十四岁病逝, 短暂的一生, 六次率兵平定西部边陲, 取得了决定性的胜利, 为西汉王朝的统一、巩固,做出了卓越的贡献。武帝为纪念他生前河西大捷的战功, 特在茂陵旁修建了一座象征祁连山的墓冢, 境界逼真, 墓上有各科巨型石刻、手法简练,气势浑厚, 达到形神兼备的艺术化境, 是我国最早、最大、最完整的国宝级大型石刻群, 在国际上享有极高的声誉, 素为中外艺术大师所赞仰.

1961年, 国务院公布茂陵和霍去病墓为第一批全国重点文物保护单位。


Tomb of Huo Qubing 霍去病


Maoling Mausoleum, where Emperor Liu Che 劉徹 (Wudi 武帝, reigned 141 - 87 B. C.) was buried. ranks the top in magnitude among the imperial mausoleums of the Western Han Dynasty (206 B. C. -25 AD). The mausoleum is located at the former Maoxiang 茂鄕 Township under the administration of Huaili County 槐里縣 in the Han Dynasty (206 B.C. 220 A. D.), hence the name of Maoling.

It was recorded in The Annals of the Han Dynasty: Wadi Era 漢書․武帝紀 that "Maoling Prefecture 茂陵邑 was officially established in the 2nd year after the emperor changed his reign title into Jian Yuan 建元." Construction of the mausoleum lasted 53 years. As was written in the Book of Han History 漢書, annual expenditure on the construction amounted to 1/3 of the collected taxes from the nation. The high magnificent body of the mausoleum was shaped into a square cone and was known as Oriental Pyramid.

As is revealed in the Records of Guanzhong 關中記, "all mausoleums of the Han Dynasty stand 12 zhang 丈 (Chinese unit of length equal to 3.3333m) high to extend 120 pace 步 (Chinese unit of length equal to 1.6666m) at each of four sides. but only Maoling Mausoleum stands 14 zhang high to extend 140 pace long." The factual survey shows the mausoleum is now measured by 46.5 m in height, the bottom 231m west-east and 234m norht-south, which basically agrees with the recorded data. The mausoleum is surrounded by a square wall of 430.87m west-east and 414.87m north-south, with a width of 5.8m at the foundation. The remains of the wall lie distinctively recognizable.

It was recorded that the burial objects in the mausoleum were extremely rich and luxurious, where "no more vacancy is left for acceptance." The immensity of the project and the riches of the burial objects far topped any other Han mausoleums. To the northwest of the mausoleum lies a tomb in peculiar shape, the upper part of which was narrowed to leave an outer ring on top of the lower part, in which Madame Li 李夫人 was buried. Around the mausoleum scatter over 20 satellite tombs 陪葬墓, including those for Wei Qing 衛靑, Huo Qubing 霍去病, Huo Guang 霍光 and Jin Midi 金日磾, all meritorious courtiers, valiant generals and close relatives during the reign of Emperor Liu Che.


Tombs of Emperor Liu Che 劉徹(L) and Madame Li 李夫人 이부인(R), Viewed from top of Wei Qing 衛靑's Tomb 


Huo Qubing (140 - 117 B. C.), a distinguished young general in the reign of Emperor Liu Che, commanded troops when he was 18. He died of illness at the age of 24. Despite his short life, he led his army on six punitive expeditions to western borders to fight against the Hun 匈奴 invaders and won decisively splendid victories. Thus, he contributed outstanding share to the unification and solidification of the Western Han 西漢 Dynasty.

In order to commemorate the military exploits Huo had performed on the western border, the emperor ordered the build a grave mound genuinely imitative of Mt. Quliand 祁連山 nearby Maoling Mausoleum. On the tomb spread monumental stone sculptures carved in an impressively simple style with forceful moment. Resembling genuine images both in body and sprit artistically, the sculptures, as the national treasures of China that are the earliest in age, largest in size and best preserved in entity, enjoy extremely high reputation internationally and win enthusiastic appreciation from art masters at home and abroad.

In 1961, the State Council 國務院 listed Maoling Mausoleum and the Tomb of Huo Qubing among the first important sites of cultural relics to be protected.

问询也话: 029-38456140 救援电话: 029-38456140 投诉电话: 029-38824612  


Jin Midi 金日磾 김일제묘

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