Located in the north of Mt. Namsan (南山) in Gyeongju, the capital of the Silla Kingdom, also called 'Silla Namsansinseong (新羅南山新城) ', the fortress was built in the 13th year (591 AD) of King Jinpyeong (眞平王) of Silla.
Later in the year of 679 when King Munyumu (文武王) reigned, it was repaired or rebuilt. Much of the walls were destroyed, and the relatively well preserved walls are hard to find.
At present, there are still sites of three large warehouses inside the fortress for storing weapons and food and preparing for war.
As of today, 9 monuments (南山新城碑) erected to commemorate the construction of the fortress have been found. They are all made during the reign of King Jinpyeong. The Chinese characters are inscribed in a simple, antiquated style on them. The contents of the monuments are similar to each other, including the date of the work's completion and the oath that "people gathered nationwide and took a certain length of wall, and if the wall collapses within three years, they will be punished."
Overlooking the Gyeongju Plain, this fortress is one of the military facilities to protect the capital during the Silla dynasty period along with Seohyeongsanseong (서형산성) of the west and Myeonghwalsanseong (명활산성) of the east of the Gyeongju plains (慶州平野) .
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